Document Type : Research Article


Department of Food Science and Technology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.


Introduction: Nowadays, consumers prefer foods produced without synthetic preservatives. These chemical preservatives have been gradually replaced by natural preservatives in formulation of edible films and coating. Since, edible films can be applied as carriers of antimicrobial agents, so, these aforementioned ingredients can be incorporated in such films. Among edible films, protein-based films such as whey protein concentrate (WPC)-based films are more attractive because they also supply valuable nutrients and introduce acceptable mechanical resistance. On the other hand, these films present moderate barriers to moisture due to the hydrophilic nature of whey proteins. Essential oils (Eos) can be incorporated in to edible films in order to compensate (overcome) this defect. Since no published research has been found on integrating mastic tree sap (Pistacia atlantica sub sp. kurdica) essential oil into whey protein edible films, this essential oil was applied for WPC-based film in this research. Some species belong to Penicillium have been known as contaminants of dairy and fruit products. Among Penicillium sp., P. expansum is more popular for causing post-harvest damage of apples. In this study, our objective was focused on mechanical and anti-fungal properties of WPC-based films incorporated with mastic gum essential oil.

Materials and methods: WPC, mastic tree sap and P. expansum were obtained from Multi Milk Company, Kurdistan mastic Gum Company and Persian Type Collection Culture, respectively. Extraction of EO from mastic gum was accomplished using water distillation or hydro distillation with the help of Clevenger-type apparatus for 5 hours to obtain a pale yellow oil. Solution (10%w/w) of WPC in distilled water was prepared. Glycerol (as plasticizer) was added to WPC solution at a ratio of 1:1 WPC: Glycerol. Then concentrations of EO (1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 ppm) was added to solution and mixed for 2 min. In the next step, some characteristics of film were measured including: thickness and density, water solubility, stability in acidic and alkaline solutions, water vapor permeability and light transmission / film transparency. Some mechanical properties of films such as tensile strength (TS) and elongation at break (%E) of films were also determined.
Regarding microbial assays, following the activation and preparation of fungi spore, MIC was determined using Agar Dilution Method. Determination of antimicrobial activity of film was performed according to film disk agar diffusion assay

Results & Discussion: With increasing essential oil concentration, film thickness exhibited increasing trend which was due to entrapment of micro-droplets of essential oil in film. Along with increasing EO concentration in film samples, WVP declined significantly (P-value


Abdollahi, M., Rezaei, M. & Farzi, G., 2012, A novel active bionanocomposite film incorporating rosemary essential oil and nanoclay into chitosan, Journal of Food Engineering, 111(2), 343-350
Ahmad, M., Benjakul, S., Prodpran, T. & Agustini, T. W., 2012, Physico-mechanical andantimicrobial properties of gelatin film from the skin of unicorn leatherjacket incorporated with essential oils, Food Hydrocolloids, 28(1), 189-199.
Akrami Mohajer,F., Akhoonzadeh Basti, A., Khosravi, A. R., Gandomi, H., Ebrahim Nejad, H. 1391. Growth inhibition and morphological alterations to Penicillium citrinum in response to Zataria multiflora boiss. Essential oil. Journal of Veterinary Research. 67(4):307-312.
Aksoy A, Duran N, Koksal F. In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial effects of mastic chewing gum against Streptococcus mutans and mutans streptococci. Archives of Oral Biology 2006; 51:476-481
Alizadeh, V., Barzegar, H., Nasehi, B., Samavati, V.1396. Characterization of physical and antimicrobial properties of chitosan edible films containing Pistacia atlantica gum essence. Iranian Food Science and Technology Research Journal.13 (4):584-593.
Alma, M. H., Nitz, S., Kollmannsberger, H., Digrak, M., Efe, F. T., and Yilmaz, N.2004.Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from the gum of Turkish pistachio (Pistacia vera L.). Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 52, 3911- 3914.
ASTM, 2001. Standard methods of test for water vapor transmission of materials in sheet from, method ASTM E 96-00. In Annual book of ASTM standard. Philadelphia, PA: American Society for Testing and Material.
ASTM, 2002. Standard test method for tensile properties of thin plastic sheeting, D882-02. In Annual book of ASTM stsndards. Philadephia, PA: American Society for Testing and Material.
Bahram, S., Rezaei, M., Soltani, M., Kamali, M., ا, S.M., Abdollahi, M.2014.Whey Protein Concentrate Edible Film Activated with Cinnamon Essential Oil.Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 38(3), 1251-1258.
Barrero, A. F., Herrador, M. M., Arteaga, J. F., Akssira, M., Mellouki, F., Belgarrabe, A. & Blazquez, M. A., 2005, Chemical composition of the essential oils of Pistacia atlantica Desf Journal of Essential Oil Research, 17(1), 52-54.
Bekhradi, R and Khayat Kashani, M. 1385. Therapeutic Applications of Essential oils. Morsal Pblication. pp:28-32.
Ben Douissa F, Hayder N, Chekir-Ghedira L, Hammami M, Ghedria K, Mariotte AM and et al. 2005. New study of the essential oil from leaves of Pistacia lentiscus L. Anacardiaceae from Tunisia. Flavor and Fragrance Journal. 20: 410-414.
Broumand, A., Emam-Djomeh, Z., Hamedi, M. and Razavi, S.H. 2011. Antimicrobial, water vapour permeability, mechanical and thermal properties of casein based Zataria multiflora Boiss. Extract containing film. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 44, 2316–2323.
Cagri, A., Ustunol, Z., and Ryser, E.T., 2001. Antimicrobial, mechanical, and moisture barrier properties of low pH whey protein-based edible films containing p-aminobenzoic or sorbic acids. Journal of Food Science 66 (6), 865-870.
Castola, V., Bighelli, A., and Casanova, J. 2000.Intraspecific chemical variability of the essential oil of Pistacia lentiscus L. from Corsica. Biochemical Systematics Ecology. 28, 79-88.
Chae, S., and Heo, T.R., 1997. Production and properties of edible films using whey protein.Biotechnology and Bioprocessing Engineering, 2, 122-125.
Cheragh Ali, A. M., Yazdanpanah, H., and Doraki, N. "Incidence of aflatoxins in Iran pistachio nuts"Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2007, 45: 812-816.
Delazar, A., Reid, R. G. and Sarker, S. D. 2004.GC-MS Analysis of the Essential Oil from the Oleoresin of Pistacia atlantica var. mutica. Chemistry of Natural Compounds. 40, 24-27.
Farhoosh, R., Tavakoli, J., and Haddad Khodaparast, M. H. 2008.Chemical Composition and Oxidative Stability of Kernel Oils from Two Current Subspecies of Pistacia atlantica in Iran. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 85(8), 723-729.
Galus, S., Kadzińska, J. 2016. Whey protein edible films modified with almond and walnut oils. Food Hydrocolloids. 52, 78-86.
Gomez-Estaca, J., Lopez delacey, A., Lopezcaballero, M.E., Gomez-Guillen, M.C. andntero, P.2010. Biodegradable gelatin-chitosan films incorporated with essential oils as antimicrobial agent’s forfish preservation. Food Microbiology.27, 889–896.
Habibi Najafi, M. B., Hajimohamadi Farimani, R., Tavakoli, J., and Madayeni. S. 2014. GC-MS Analysis And Antimicrobial Activity Of The Essential Oil Of Trunk Exudates OF Pistacia atlantica var. mutica, Chemistry of Natural Compounds, Vol. 50, No. 2,376–378.
Han, J. H., & Floros, J. D., 1997. Casting antimicrobial packaging films and measuring their physical properties and antimicrobial activity.Journal of Plastic Film and Sheeting, 13:287-298.
Hatamnia, A. A., Abbaspour, N. & Darvishzadeh, R., 2014, Antioxidant activity and phenolic profile of different parts of Bene (Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica) fruits, Food chemistry, 145, 306-311.
Hu, G., Chen, J, 2009. Preparation and characteristics of oxidized potato starch films. Carbohydrate Polymer, 76:291-298.
Kumar, R., Mishra, A.K., Dubey, N.K. and Tripathi, Y.B. 2007. Evaluation of Chenopodium ambrosioides as a potential source of antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activity. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 115, 159–164.
Mgiatis, P., Melliou, E., Skaltounis, A., Chinou, I. B. and Mitaku, S.1999. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia. Planta Medica., 65(8), 749-752.
Monaco, P., Previtera, L., and Mangoni, L.1982.Terpenes in Pistacia plants: A possible defence role for monoterpenes against gall-forming aphids. Phytochemistry, 21(9), 2408-2410.
Muller C M O, Yamashita F, Laurindo J B, 2008. Evaluation of the effects of glycerol and sorbitol concentration and water activity on the water barrier properties of cassava starch films through a solubility approach. Carbohydrate Polymer, 72:82-87.
Norajit, K., Kim, K.M. and Ryu, G.H. 2010. Comparative studies on the characterization and antioxidant properties of biodegradable alginate films containing ginseng extract. Journal of Food Engineering. 98, 377–384.
Ojagh, S.M., Rezaei, M., Razavi, S.H., and Hosseini, S.M.H., 2010a. Effect of chitosan coatings enriched with cinnamon oil on the quality of refrigerated rainbow trout. Food Chemistry. 120, 193-198.
Oses, J., Fabregat-Vazquez, M., Pedroza-Islas, R.,Tomas, S.A., Cruzorea A. and Mate, J.I. 2009.Development and characterization of composite edible filmsbased on whey protein isolate and mesquite gum. Journal of Food Engineering.92, 56–62.
Ou, S., Kwok, K. C. and Kang, Y. 2004. Changes in in vitro digestibility and available lysine of soy protein isolate after formation of film. Journal of Food Engineering. 64, 301-305.
Pranoto, Y., S.K. Rakshit, V.M. Salokhe. 2005. Enhancing antibacterial activity of chitosan films by incorporating garlic, potassium sorbate and nisin. LWT, 38: 859-865.
Perez-Gago, M.B and Krochta, J.M. 1999. Water vapor permeability of whey protein emulsion films as affected by pH. Journal of Food Science. 64(4):695-698.
Ramezani, M., Khaje-Karamoddin, M., and Karimi-Fard, V. 2004. Chemical Composition and Anti–Helicobacter pylori Activity of the Essential Oil of Pistacia vera. Pharmaceutical Biology. 42 (7), 488 - 490.
Ramos, O. L., Fernandes, J. C., Silva, S. I., Pintado, M. E., and Malcata, F. X. 2012. Edible Films and Coatings from Whey Proteins: A Review on Formulation, and on Mechanical and Bioactive Properties. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 52:533–552.
Rojes-Grau,M.., Avena-Bustillos,R.J., Olsen, C., Friedman, M., Henika, P.R., Martin-Belloso, O., et al. 2007 Effects of plant essential oils and oil compounds on mechanical, barrier and antimicrobial properties of alginate-apple puree edible films. Journal of food Engineering, 81, 634-641.
Romero-Bastida C A, Bello-Oerez L.A, Garcia M.A, Martino M.N, Solorza-Feria J, Zaritzky, N.E. 2005. Physicochemical and microstructural characterization of films prepared by thermal and cold gelatinization from non-conventional sources of starches.Carbohydrate Polymer, 60:235-244.
Sanchez-Gonzalez, L., Vargas, M., Gonzalez-Martinez, C., Chiralt, A. and Chafer, M. 2011.Use of essential oils in bioactive edible coatings.Food Engineering Review.3, 1-16.
Seydim, A.C. and Sarikus, G. 2006. Antimicrobial activity of whey protein based edible films incorporated with oregano, rosemary and garlic essential oils. Food ResearchInternational. 39, 639–644.
Sharifi, M. S., and Hazell, S.L. 2011. GC-MS Analysis and Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of the trunk exudates from Pistacia atlantica kurdica. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Research. 3 (8), 1364-1367.
Shojaee-Aliabadi, S., Hosseini, H., Mohammadifar, M. A., Mohammadi, A., Ghasemlou, M., Ojagh, S. M. & Khaksar, R. 2013. Characterization of antioxidant-antimicrobial κ Carrageenan films containing satureja hortensis essential oil, International journal of biological macromolecules. 52, 116-124.
Sobral, P. J. A., Menegalli, F. C., Hubinguer, M. D., and Roques, M. A. 2001. Mechanical, water vapor barrier and thermal properties of gelatin-based edible films. Food Hydrocolloid. 15: 423-432.
Taran, M., Mohebali, M. and Esmaeli, J. 2010. In Vivo Efficacy of Gum Obtained Pistacia Atlantica in Experimental Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 39 (1), 36 -41.
Tripathi, P., Dubey, N. K. and Shukla, A. K. 2008. Use of some essential oils as post-harvest botanical fungicides in the management of grey mold of grapes caused by Botrytis cinerea. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 24:39–46.
Whitaker J.R., Feeney R. E., Sternberg. M.M. 1983. Chemical and physical modification of proteins by the hydroxide ion. C R C Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 19(3): 173-212.
Wu H.X, Lia C.H, Chen. J.H. Chen Y, Anderson D.P, 2009, Structure and properties of starch-zirconium Sacc.World microbial Biotechnology 24:1445-1450.
Yahyazadeh M, Omidbeigi R, Zare R, Taheri H,2008.Effect of some essential oil on mycelial growth of Penicillium digitatum C., 2010 , Purification of a new antifungal compound produced by Lactobacillus plantarum AF1 isolated from kimchi , International Journal ofFood Microbiology, 129 , 56-63.
Yan Q, Hou H, Guo P, Dong H, 2011. Effects of extrusion and glycerol content on properties of oxidized and acetylated corn starch-based films. Carbohydrate Polymer, 87(1):707-712.
Zinoviadou,K., Koutsumanis, K.P., & Biliaderis,C,G. 2010. Physical and thermomechanical propertions of whey protein isolate films containing antimicrobial, and their effect against spoilage flora of fresh beef. Food Hydrocolloids, 24, 49-59.