Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Bio-System Mechanical Engineering, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Respectively, Gorgan, Iran

2 Department of Bio-System Mechanical Engineering, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Respectively, Gorgan, Iran.


Introduction: The study of relationship between physical properties such as mass and volume and other physical properties, such as geometric dimensions, has been the subject of numerous studies by researchers. The fruit size, shape and mass are important in sorting and measuring fruits, and it determines that the fruits can be put in boxes of transport or plastic bags by a specific size. Damage to the fruit may be due to various causes, including Impact, pressure and vibration, all of which cause physical damage at moment or at storage time, the amount of damages depends on location of impact, the size and volume. Also, the volume and physical properties of agricultural products are very important for storage. On the other hand, cell damage and forces involved in fruits reason bruising in fruits, which can be controlled by physical properties. Quality assessment is usually carried out using a combination of destructive and non-destructive methods, generally done by the product manufacturers or the first purchasers, and includes the separation of materials based on specific size and weight. Among non-destructive methods used, the use of CT and X-rays, which allow a person to examine bruises at different times in the fruit, is increasing. Due to the fact that mass and volume of fruits for storage, transportation, packaging and etc are of great importance, in this research, the relationship between pear fruit volume and mass with bruise percentage during the storage period was studied using non-destructive CT scan tests due to dynamic loads.
 Materials and methods: Firstly, the pendulum and the required masses were made in a workshop. The fruits were placed in the desired position and then the device arm was raised to the desired angle (90°), and in the controlled state of the arm impact the pear. The pendulum had a 200 g and three different attachment masses of 100, 150, and 200 g for knocking. It should be noted that air resistance and friction were neglected through this procedure. In this research, via CT scan, the relationship between mass and volume of pears (Before and after the impact) due impact loading and storage times with bruise was investigated. Before loading and storing, 50 pears were examined using Scan CT and 27 pears with zero bruise percentage were selected, the next chosen pears were subjected to impact loading with a pendulum with three weight of 300, 350 and 400 g and 5, 10 and 15 days storage was used to investigate the effect of impact on pears. Then, after impact and storing, with the use of CT scan in each period of storage, the rate of pear bruise was calculated.
 Results and Discussion: The pears volume before impact with the bruise percentage for all three weights had a negative and non-significant correlation and the decrease pear mass percentage with the bruise percentage for all three weights has a positive correlation and pears mass before impact with the bruise percentage for all three weights had a positive and non-significant correlation. Any decrease in pear mass percentage had a positive correlation with caries percentage for all three weights. The correlation test showed that with the increase in pear volume, the bruise percentage was decreased and a direct correlation was found between the decreasing percentage volume and the bruise percentage. –also The effect of 5-day storage duration was found considerable on the bruise percentage subject to the exertion of 350 g and higher impact  rates


Abedi, G., and E. Ahmadi. 2013. Design and Evaluation a Pendulum Device to Study Postharvest Mechanical Damage in Fruits : Bruise Modeling of Red Delicious Apple. Australian Journal of Crop Science 7, no. 7: 962–968.
Abera, M.K., P. Verboven, E. Herremans, T. Defraeye, S.W. Fanta, Q.T. Ho, J. Carmeliet, and B.M. Nicolai. 2014. 3D Virtual Pome Fruit Tissue Generation Based on Cell Growth Modeling. Food and Bioprocess Technology 7, no. 2 (February 25): 542–555.
Abiso, E., N. Atheesh*, and H. Addisalem. 2015. Effect of storage methods and ripening stages on postharvest quality of tomato (lycopersicom esculentum mill ) CV. Chali effect of storage methods and ripening stages on postharvest Tomato (Lycopersicom Esculentum L .) Is Botanically Classified as a Fr. Annals. Food Science and Technology 16, no. 1: 127–137.
Ahmadi, E., H.R. Ghassemzadeh, M. Sadeghi, M. Moghaddam, and S.Z. Neshat. 2010. The Effect of Impact and Fruit Properties on the Bruising of Peach. Journal of Food Engineering 97, no. 1: 110–117.
Azadbakht, M., H. Aghili, A. Ziaratban, and M. Vehedi Torshizi. 2017. Application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) in Drying Kinetics Analysis for Potato Cubes. Carpathian Journal Of Food Science And Technology 17, no. 4: 167–180.
Babic, L., S. Matic-Kekic, N. Dedovic, M. Babic, and I. Pavkov. 2012. Surface Area and Volume Modeling of the Williams Pear (Pyrus Communis). International Journal of Food Properties 15, no. 4: 880–890.
Brusewitz, G.H., and J.A. Bartsch. 1989. Impact Parameters Related to Post Harvest Bruising of Apples. Transactions of the ASAE 32, no. 3: 953.
Brusewitz, G.H., T.G. McCollum, and X. Zhang. 1991. Impact Bruise Resistance of Peaches. Transactions of the ASAE 34, no. 3: 962–965.
Diels, E., M. van Dael, J. Keresztes, S. Vanmaercke, P. Verboven, B. Nicolai, W. Saeys, H. Ramon, and B. Smeets. 2017. Assessment of Bruise Volumes in Apples Using X-Ray Computed Tomography. Postharvest Biology and Technology 128: 24–32.
Ganiron, T.U. 2014. Size Properties of Mangoes Using Image Analysis. International Journal of Bio-Science and Bio-Technology 6, no. 2: 31–42.
Hazbavi, E., M.H. Khoshtaghaza, A. Mostaan, and A. Banakar. 2015. Effect of Storage Duration on Some Physical Properties of Date Palm (Cv. Stamaran). Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences 14, no. 2: 140–146.
Idah, P.A., E.S.A. Ajisegiri, and M.G. Yisa. 2007. An Assessment of Impact Damage to Fresh Tomato Fruits. AU Journal of Technology 10, no. 4: 271–275.
Kabas, O. 2010. Methods of Measuring Bruise Volume of Pear (Pyrus Communis L.). International Journal of Food Properties 13, no. 5: 1178–1186.
Kotwaliwale, N., P.R. Weckler, G.H. Brusewitz, G.A. Kranzler, and N.O. Maness. 2007. Non-Destructive Quality Determination of Pecans Using Soft X-Rays. Postharvest Biology and Technology 45, no. 3: 372–380.
Mohammad Shafie, M., A. Rajabipour, S. Castro-Garcia, F. Jimenez-Jimenez, and H. Mobli. 2015. Effect of Fruit Properties on Pomegranate Bruising. International Journal of Food Properties 18, no. 8: 1837–1846.
Opara, U.L., and P.B. Pathare. 2014. Bruise Damage Measurement and Analysis of Fresh Horticultural Produce-A Review. Postharvest Biology and Technology 91: 9–24.
Pathare, P.B., U.L. Opara, C. Vigneault, M.A. Delele, and F.A.J. Al-Said. 2012. Design of Packaging Vents for Cooling Fresh Horticultural Produce. Food and Bioprocess Technology 5, no. 6: 2031–2045.
Peleg, K., and S. Hinga. 1986. Simulation of Vibration Damage in Produce Transportation. Transactions of the ASAE 29, no. 2: 633–641.
Sabzi, S., P. Javadikia, H. Rabani, and A. Adelkhani. 2013. Mass Modeling of Bam Orange with ANFIS and SPSS Methods for Using in Machine Vision. Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation 46, no. 9: 3333–3341.
Shahbazi, F., and S. Rahmati. 2013. Mass Modeling of Sweet Cherry (Prunus Avium L) Fruit with Some Physical Characteristics. Food and Nutrition Sciences 4, no. January: 1–5.
Soltani, M., R. Alimardani, and M. Omid. 2011. Modeling the Main Physical Properties of Banana Fruit Based on Geometrical Attributes. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Engineering 2, no. 2: 1–6.
Stropek, Z., and K. Gołacki. 2015. A New Method for Measuring Impact Related Bruises in Fruits. Postharvest Biology and Technology 110: 131–139.
Zarifneshat, S., A. Rohani, H.R. Ghassemzadeh, M. Sadeghi, E. Ahmadi, and M. Zarifneshat. 2012. Predictions of Apple Bruise Volume Using Artificial Neural Network. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 82: 75–86.