Document Type : Full Research Paper


1 Department of Food Science & Technology, Sabzevar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sabzevar, Iran

2 Agricultural engineering research department. KhorasanRazavi agricultural and natural resources research education center, Agriculture Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Mashhad, Iran.


Introductıon: In baked foods, hydrocolloids have been used for retarding staling and improving the quality of fresh products ((Ba´rcenas et al 2003, 2004). Researchers found that all hydrocolloids are able to hold moisture loss during crumbing of bread and reduce the rate of water loss and moisture to increase the bread crumb (Arendt, 2013).  Ocimum basilicum L., and Amygdalus scoparia., commonly known as Basil and Farsi gums, are a good source for pharmaceutical, food and industrial applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Ocimum Bacilicum and Farsi gums on optimization of loaf bread production by decreasing the hardness and increasing the special volume, porosity and extensibility values by using the response surface method.
Materials and methods: The Ocimum bacilicum seeds were first cleaned, then seeds were soaked in distilled water to obtain a water to seed ratio of 37:1 at 40 ˚C and pH = 7. Separation of the hydrocolloid from the swollen seeds was achieved by passing the seeds through an extractor equipped with a rotating plate that scraped the gum layer on the seed surface. The extracted solution was then filtered and dried in an air forced oven at 60˚C and finally the powder was milled, sieved using a mesh 18 sifter, packed and kept at cool and dry condition (Karazhiyan et al., 2010, Mohamad Amini et al., 2007). Farsi gum in powder were bought from Rihan gum Parsian co. The effect of Basil and Farsi seed gum concentration (0-1%) on water activity, moisture, specific volume, hardness and extensibility of bread was investigated. For Data Analysis used SPSS software and Duncan test, for mean comparisons.
Results and discusions: The results revealed that the water activity in bread was decreased while an enhancement was observed in moisture, hardness and extensibility with an increase at gum concentration. Further, the specific volume and porosity of bread were increased and then decreased by adding the gum with higher level. In order to reach to a minimum hardness and maximum specific volume, porosity and extensibility, the concentration of Basil and Farsi seed gum should be 0.46 and 0.35% respectively. The results of this study showed that any increase in concentration of gum in the formulation, makes moisture content, hardness and elongation to be increased, but the activity of water decreased. However, with the increase of Farsi gum, the amount of specific volume and porosity increased and then decreased. In the end, it can be stated that, in order to obtain optimal conditions for bread formulation, the percentage of basil and Farsi gum seeds should be 0.42 and 0.35% respectively.


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