Document Type : Full Research Paper


1 Department of Food Science and Technology, Islamic Azad University, Sari Branch.

2 Department of Food Science and Technology, Islamic Azad University, Ayatollah Amoli Branch.

3 Department of Food Science and Technology, Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources.

4 Research Institute for the Development of Chemical, Polymeric and Petrochemical Technologies, Petroleum Industry Research Institute.


Introduction: In recent years, legumes have been highly considered as a good source of protein, fibers, minerals and other bioactive compounds in order to develop novel foods with improved nutritional properties. There is some evidence that legume consumption reduces the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and some cancers. Vicia faba has about twice protein content as cereals and can be a good alternative to meat and protein-rich ingredients. It should also be noted that the amount of insoluble fiber is higher than soluble fibers in legume. Vicia faba belongs to the Fabaceae family .Vicia faba contains high protein (21-41% dry content of the bean), carbohydrates (51-68% dry content of the bean), fiber (5-5.8%), B-vitamins and minerals. Recently, the protein function of Vicia faba, especially its protein isolate, has been studied on a laboratory scale for use in food products, due to its good ability in hydration, solubility, emulsification, viscosity, and foam and gel formation. Research has also shown that the protein in Vicia faba has better ability to emulsify water and oil and foaming capacity and foam stability compared to bean and pea flour. The structural and functional properties of the protein isolates and concentrates of legumes such as Vicia faba are strongly influenced by their preparation, extraction and drying methods. One of the ways to improve extraction and optimization of protein properties can be ultrasound and an enzymatic controlled hydrolysis. Due to the importance of dietary fiber, various methods have been developed for their decomposition, many of which are very precise and special, some of which have high-purity enzymes and selectively release oligosaccharides and polysaccharides containing dietary fiber. In this  study, the possibility of using ultrasound and limited enzymatic hydrolysis in order to produce value added product and increase the extraction efficiency and improve the functional properties of protein and fiber of Vicia faba, were evaluated.
Materials and Methods: In this study, ultrasound and enzymatic hydrolysis were used to optimize extraction and modify physicochemical properties of protein and fiber of VaciaFaba. The proteins were affected by ultrasound at 200, 300 and 400 W for 15, 25 and 35 minutes, and the Alcalase enzyme 2.4 LFG at 0.15, 0.3 and 0.45% doses were extracted at 15, 25 and 35 minutes and the design of the treatments was done by Designer Express software. Solubility, oil absorption capacity, emulsification and zeta potential of protein samples were measured. Vicia faba fiber extraction under alkaline conditions was obtained from solutions of 0.0012, 0.012 and 0.12% sodium hydroxide until reaching pH 12, 11 and 10 and Termamy 2x enzyme was used for enzyme hydrolysis. Water retention capacity and rheological properties of Vicia Faba fiber samples were investigated.
Results and Discussion: The results showed that the use of ultrasound and enzymatic hydrolysis had a positive effect on solubility, oil absorption capacity and emulsion properties of the protein samples. Zeta potential was also negative for all treatments, which indicates that the Vicia faba protein treatment solution contains more negative amino acids than positive-loaded amino acids. Among the fiber samples of the ViciaFaba, a fiber sample with a pH of 10 had the highest water retention capacity and G-level than the other two samples, indicating a more solid and elastic quality. Also, in all fiber samples, increasing cutting speed reduced the viscosity and the samples showed a dilution action with cutting or pseudoplastic.


اصلان زاده، م. میزانی، م. گرامی، ع. علیمی، م. 1390، بررسی عملکرد پراکسید هیدروژن بر روی ویژگی های فیزیکی فیبر رژیمی تولید شده از سبوس گندم، فصلنامه علوم غذایی و تغذیه، دوره 9، شماره 4، 21-28.
صالحی فر، م، فدایی نوغانی، و، 1392، بررسی قابلیت استخراج فیبر رژیمی از سبوس برنج و مقایسه خواص عملکردی آن با فیبر تجاری گندم، علوم غذایی و تغذیه، 61، 21-30.
AACC (2000c). American association of cereal chemists. Approved method 56-30 (10th ed.). St. Paul, MN, USA.
Abdel-Aal, E. S. M., Shehata, A. A., El-Mahdy, A. R., & Youssef, M. M. (1986). Extractability and functional properties of some legume proteins isolated by three different methods. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 37(6), 553-559.
Amani. M, M., Javanmard, A., Morshedloo, M. R., Maggi, F. (2017). Evaluation of yield, essential oil content and compositions of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) intercropped with faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Journal of Cleaner Production, 167, ISSN 0959-6526.
Amaral. D. E, J., Levien. V, N., Zanella. P, V., De. B, J. J., Renato. G. D , A & Rosa. Z, E. D. (2017). Black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates: physicochemical and functional properties. Food Chemistry, 214, 460-467.
Arzeni, C., Martinez, K., Zema, P., Arias, A., Perez, O., & Pilosof, A. (2012). Comparative study of high intensity ultrasound effects on food proteins functionality. Journal of Food Engineering, 108(3), 463–472.
Aslanzadeh, M., Mizani, M., Alimi, M & Gaeami, A. (2012). Rheological properties of low fat mayonnaise with different levels of modified wheat bran. Food Biosciences and Technology, 2, 27-34.
Avramenko, N. A., Low, N. A & Nickerson, M. T.(2013). The effects of limited enzymatic hydrolysis on the physicochemical and emulsifying properties of a lentil protein isolate. Food Research International, 51, 162-169.
Bouzid, H., Rabiller-Baudry, M., Paugam, L., Rousseau, F., Derriche, Z., & Bettahar, N. E. (2008). Impact of zeta potential and size of caseins as precursors of fouling deposit on limiting and critical fluxes in spiral ultrafiltration of modified skim milks. Journal of Membrane Science, 314(1), 67–75
Boye, J. I., Aksay, S., Roufik , S., Ribereau, S., Mondor, M., Farnworth, E & Rajamohamed, S.H. (2010). Comparison of the functional properties of pea, chickpea and lentil protein concentrates processed using ultrafiltration and isoelectric precipitation techniques. Food Research International, 43, 537-546.
Caliskanturk. K, S., Gunay, D & Sayar, S. (2017). In vitro evaluation of whole faba bean and its seed coat as a potential source of functional food components. Food Chemistry, 230,182-188.
Coda, R., Varis, J., Verni, M., G. Rizzello, C & Katina, K. (2017). Improvement of the protein quality of wheat bread through faba bean sourdough addition. Food Science and Technology , 82, 296-302.
Constantinides, A., & Adu-Amankwa, B. (1980). Enzymatic modification of vegetable protein: Mechanism, kinetics, and production of soluble and partially soluble protein in a batch reactor. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 22(8), 1543-1565.
Chen, L., Chen, J., Ren, J., & Zhao, M. (2011). Effects of ultrasound pretreatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of soy protein isolates and on the emulsifying properties of hydrolysates. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(6), 2600–2609.
Du, M., Xie, J., Gong, B., Xu, X., Tang, W., Li, X., Li, Ch., Xie, M. (2017). Extraction, physicochemical characteristics and function properties of mung bean protein. Food Hydrocolloids xxx, 1-10.
Eromosele, C. O., Arogundade, L. A., Eromosele, I. C., & Ademuyiwa, O. (2008). Extractability of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) protein in acid, salt and alkaline aqueous media. Food Hydrocolloids, 22(8), 1622-1628.
Feng, Z., Dou, W., Alaxi, S., Niu, Y & Yu, L. (2017). Modified soluble dietary fiber from black bean coats with its
rheological and bile acid binding properties. Food Hydrocolloids, 62, 94-101.
Hendawey, M. H & Younes, A. M. A. (2013). Biochemical evaluation of some faba bean cultivars under rainfed conditions at El-Sheikh Zuwayid. Annals of Agricultural Sciences, 58, 183-193.
Janser. S. d. C, R., Granato. C, V & Harumi. S, H. (2017). Binary mixture of proteases increases the antioxidant properties of white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein-derived peptides obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 10, 291-297.
Jiang, L., Wang, J., Li, Y., Wang, Zh., Liang, J., Wang, R., Chen, Y., Ma, W., Qi, W & Zhang, M. (2014). Effects of ultrasound on the structure and physical properties of black bean protein isolates. Food Research International, 62, 595-601.
Johnston, S. P., Nickerson, M. T & Low, N. H. (2015). The physicochemical properties of legume protein isolates and their ability to stabilizer oil-in-water emulsions with and without genipin. J Food Sci Technol. 52(7), 4135-4145.
Karim, M., Alimi, M., Shokoohi, S & Fazeli, F. (2017). Effect of long-chain inulin and modified starch on the physicochemical and rheological properties of doogh (Iranian yogurt drink). Acta Alimentaria, 46 (1), 51–60.
Kinsella, J. E. (1979). Functional properties of soy proteins. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 56, 242–258.
Khosravi, Y., Keramat, J., Hoseini, E., Keshavarz. H, A. A & Mahmodi, E. (2013). Investigating the effect of pH and ionic concentration on foaming and emulsifing different Iranian beans. Innovation in Science and Technolory, 1, 99-111(in Persian).
Kimura, A., Fukuda, T., Zhang, M., Motoyama, S., Maruyama, N., & Utsumi, S. (2008). Comparison of physicochemical properties of 7S and 11S globulins from pea, fava bean, cowpea, and French bean with those of soybean-french bean 7S globulin exhibits excellent properties. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, 10273-10279.
Lin, M. J. Y., & Humbert, E. S. (1974). Certain functional properties of sunflower meal products. Journal of Food Science, 39(2), 368–370.
Lu, W., Chen, X. W., Wang, J. M., Yang, X. Q., Qi, J. R. (2015). Enzyme-Assisted Subcritical Water Extraction and Characterization of Soy Protein from Heat-Denatured Meal. Journal of Food Engineering.
Maani, B., Alimi, M., Shokoohi, S & Fazeli, F.(2016). Substitution of modified starch with hydrogen peroxidemodified rice bran in salad dressing formulation: physicochemical, texture, rheological and sensory properties. Texture Studies, 48, 205-214.
Martinnez. M, D., Hernandez, B., Amigo, L., Miralles, B & AngelGomez, J.(2013). Extraction/Fractionation techniques for proteins and pepfies and protein digestion. Food Microbiology and Food Safety 2.
Martinez. V, A., Lobato. C, C., Hernandez. R, B. E., Roman. G, A., Alvarez. R, J., Vernon. C, E. J. (2018). High intensity ultrasound treatment of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) protein: Effect on surface properties, foaming ability and structural changes. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 44, 97-105.
Mu, L., Zhao, M., Yang, B., Zhao, H., Cui, C., & Zhao, Q. (2010). Effect of ultrasonic treatment
on the graft reaction between soy protein isolate and gum acacia and on the physicochemical properties of conjugates. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(7), 4494–4499.
Moure, A., J. Sineiro, J., Herminia Domınguez, H & Parajo, J.C. (2006). Functionality of oilseed protein products: A review. J. Food Research International 39, 945–963.
Multari, S., Stewart, D & Russell, W. R. (2015). Potential of Fava Bean as Future Protein Supply to
Partially Replace Meat Intake in the Human Diet. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 14, 511-522.
Nivala, O., Makinen, O. E., Kruus, K., Nordlund, E & Ercili. C, D. (2017). Structuring colloidal oat and faba bean protein particles via enzymatic modification. Food Chemistry, 231, 87-95.
Okezie , B. O., Bello, A. B. (1988). Physicochemical and functional properties of winged bean flour and isolate compared eith soy isolate. Food Sci, 53, 450-454.
Quemener, B. (1988).Improvements in the high pressure liquid chromatographic determination of amino sugars and α-galactosides in faba bean, lupin and pea. Journal of Agriculture and food chemistry, 36,754-759.
Rosa.S, N., Heinio, R. L., Cassan, D., Holopainen. M, U., Micard, V., Lantto, R & Sozer, N. (2016). Effect of bioprocessing and fractionation on the structural, textural and sensory properties of gluten-free faba bean pasta. Food Science Technology, 67, 27-36.
Rocıo, R., Jimenez, A., Fernandez. B, J., Guillen, R &, Heredia, A. (2006). Dietary fibre from vegetable products as source of functional ingredients. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 17, 3–15.
Singh, G., Wani, A.A,. Kaur,D, and Dalbir Singh Sogi, D. (2008). Characterization and functional properties of proteins of some Indian chickpea (Cicer arietinum) cultivars. J Sci Food Agric 88:778–786.
Sikorski, Z. E. (2001). Functional properties of proteins in food systems. In Z. E. Sikorski (Ed.), Chemical and functional properties of food proteins (pp. 113–135).
Song, X., Zhou, C., Fu, F., Chen, Z., & Wu, Q. (2013). Effect of high-pressure homogenization
on particle size and film properties of soy protein isolate. Industrial Crops and Products, 43, 538–544
Tan, E. S., Ngoh, Y. Y & Gan, C. Y. (2014). A comparative study of physicochemical characteristics and functionalities of pinto bean protein isolate (PBPI) against the soybean protein isolate (SPI) after the extraction optimization. Food Chemistry, 152, 447-455.
Tirgar, M., Silcock, P., Carne, A & Birch, E.J. (2017). Effect of extraction method on functional properties of flaxseed protein concentrates. Food Chemistry, 215, 417-424.
Tiwari, U & Cummins, E. (2011).Functinal and physicochemical properties of legume fiber. Pula Foods, Processing, Quality and Nutraceutical Applications, 121-156.
Yust, M. M., Pedroche, J., Giro´ n-Calle, J., Alaiz, M., Milla´ n, F., & Vioque, J. 2003. Production of ace inhibitory peptides by digestion of chickpea legumin with alkalase. Food Chemistry, 81, 363–369.
Zee, J. A., Boudreau, A., Bourgeois, M. and Breton, R. (1988). Chemical composition and nutritional quality of faba bean (Vicia faba L.Minor) based tofu. Journal of Food Science, 53(6), 1772-1774, 1781.