Document Type : Research Article


Department of Food Science and Technology, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran


 Potato strips are one of the most widely consumed products, and due to their high oil content, they have caused public health concerns. Therefore, efforts to reduce oil absorption can alleviate these concerns to some extent. Edible coating is an effective way to reduce oil uptake, because the oil absorption is a surface phenomenon. Edible coatings should adhere well to the surface of the product and provide a uniform and complete coverage for the product. Preventing the migration of oxygen, carbon dioxide, aromas, oils, moisture, improving the appearance of food and mechanical properties. In this study, the possibility of reducing oil absorption in French fries was investigated using okra mucilage and chitosan as edible coatings.
Material and Methods
 The okra was washed and then cut into about 1 cm pieces and poured into containers with lids. Then water in a ratio of 2:1 weight of okra was added to the container and completely covered its surface. The okra were refrigerated for 72 hours until the mucilage was completely extracted. Then the mucilage was smoothed. This solution was considered as 100% mucilage solution. To prepare a 50% solution of okra mucilage, 100% solution was mixed with an equal amount of distilled water and filtered. To produce a solution of 0.75 and 1.5% of chitosan, 7.5 and 15 g of chitosan powder was dissolved in 1000 ml of 1% acetic acid and then adjusted to pH 5. Then 5 g of glycerol was added as a plasticizer. The potato slices were first blanched in 0.5% calcium chloride solution at 90°C for 5 minutes. Then, they were immersed in coating solutions at 60°C for 5 minutes. After coating, the potato strips were fried at 180°C using a fryer and then various characteristics including coating percentage, oil absorption, and moisture content, texture firmness, peroxide value, acid number, color indices and sensory properties were examined. Design Expert software was used to analyze the results and to draw the curves.
Results and Discission
 The results showed that the increasing the amount of chitosan led to better coating formation in comparison with okra. The highest coverage was observed in the concentration of 1.2% chitosan and 0% okra mucilage (2.38%) and the lowest was observed in the control sample (0.11%). It was also observed that with increasing the concentration of chitosan and okra mucilage, the amount of oil absorption decreases. However, the amount of oil absorption in high concentrations of okra mucilage increased slightly. The highest oil uptake in the control sample was 20% and the lowest was observed in the sample of fried strips covered with 41% okra mucilage and 1.5% chitosan at 15.44%. The obtained model of oxidation index was not significant. The effect of okra mucilage and chitosan concentration on the texture of the samples (p <0.05) and the color indices of a* (p<0.01) and L* (p <0.05) were significant. For sensory attributes, the highest and the lowest taste score was observed for samples coated with 100% okra mucilage and 0.75% chitosan and samples coated with 18% okra mucilage and 0% chitosan respectively.
 The aim of this project was to reduce the oil absorption of fried potato strips by coating them with chitosan and okra mucilage. Optimization to minimize the consumption of okra and chitosan mucilage showed that coating with 74% okra and 0.89% chitosan is suitable for coating potato slices. The desirability of this optimization was 71%, which is a reasonable percentage.


Main Subjects

©2023 The author(s). This is an open access article distributed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source.

  1. Abramoff, M.D., Magalhães, P.J., & Ram, S.J. (2005). Image processing with ImageJ Part II. Biophotonics International, 11(7): 36–43.
  2. Alba, , Ritzoulis, C., Georgiadis, N., & Kontogiorgos, V. (2013). Okra extracts as emulsifiers for acidic emulsions. Journal of Food Research International, 54, 1730-1737.
  3. Amirabbasi, S., Elhamirad, A.H., Saeediasl, M.R., Armin, M., & Ziaolhagh, S.H.R. (2021). Optimization of polyphenolic compounds extraction methods from Okra stem. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 15(1), 717-734.
  4. Ashrafi Yorganloo, R., & Gheybi, N. (2019). Effect of okra mucilage and cmc on the oil uptake and physicochemical properties of french fries during deep-fat frying. Iranian Journal of Biosystems Engineering, 50(1), 203-211.
  5. Bouchon, P., Aguilera, J.M., & Pyle, D.L. (2015). Structure oilabsorption relationships during deep-fat frying. Journalof Food Science, 68, 2711-2716.
  6. Dana, D., & Saguy, I.S. (2006). Mechanism of oil uptake during deep-fat frying and the surfactant effect-theory and myth. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 128, 267-27.
  7. Daraei Garmakhany, A., Aghajani, N., & Kashiri, M. (2011). Use of hydrocolloids as edible covers to produce low fat French Latin American Applied Research, 41, 211-216.
  8. Daraei Garmakhany, A., Aghajani, N., & Dalvi-Isfahan, M. (2021). Optimization of the effect of pectin and carboxymethyl cellulose gums on oil uptake, textural properties and color changes of French fries using response surface methodology. Journal of Food Science and Technology (Iran). 18(116), 39-53.
  9. Darmadji, P., & Izumimoto, (1994). Effect of chitosan in meat preservation. Meat Science, 38, 243-254.
  10. Debeaufort, F., & Voilley, (2009). Lipid-based edible films and coatings. Edible Films and Coatings for Food Applications. 135-168.
  11. Eslampour, A., & Hosseini, E. (2017). The eeffects of coating with bitter almond gum and gelatin on the oil uptake reduction, physical and sensorial properties of deep-fried potato slices. Iranian Journal of Nutrition Sciences & Food Technology, 12(4), 95-102.
  12. Georgiadis, , Ritzoulis, C., Sioura, G., Kornezou, P., Vasiliadou, C., & Tsioptsias, C. (2011). Contribution of okra extracts to the stability and rheology of oil-in-water emulsions. Journal of Food Hydrocolloids, 25, 991-999.
  13. Ghaleshahi, A.Z., Farhoosh, R., & Razavi, S.M.A. (2015). Effect of Basil seed hydrocolloid on the oil uptake and physical properties of potato strips during deep-fat frying. Iranian Food Science and Technology Research Journal, 11(4), 309-308. 22067/IFSTRJ.V1394I11.38747
  14. Hojjati, M., Mehrnia, M.A., Kakaaghazadeh, A., & Feghhi, S. (2020). Effects of edible hydrocolloids on quality characteristics of the fried falafels emphasize on decreases in oil uptakes. Iranian Journal of Nutrition Sciences & Food Technology, 14(4), 77-88.
  15. Jafari, N., Ziaolhagh, S.H.R., & Nafchi, A.R.M. (2019). Study on the effect of osmotic pretreatment on the quality of air-dried potato sticks using response surface methodology. Iranian Food Science & Technology Research Journal, 15(2), 355-367.
  16. Juaniz, , Zocco, C., Mouro, V., Cid, C., & Pena, P. (2016). The Effect of frying process on furan content in foods and assessment of furan exposure of Spanish population. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 68, 549-555.
  17. Karimi, N., & Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, R. )2015(. Functionality of Coatings with Salep and Basil Seed Gum for Deep Fried Potato Strips. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 1-8.
  18. Khezripourarab, M., Hojjati, M., & Samavati, V. (2017). Effect of maltodextrin coating on properties of french fries using response surface methodology. Iranian Journal of Food Science and Technology. 13(60):25-36.
  19. Kontogiorgos, , Margelou, I., Georgiadis, N., & Ritzoulis, C. (2012). Rheological characterization of okra pectins. Journal of Food Hydrocolloids, 29, 356-362.
  20. Kpodo, M., Agbenorhevi, J.K., Alba, K., Bingham, R.J., Oduro, I.N., Morris, G.A., & Kontogiorgos, V. (2017). Pectin isolation and characterization from six okra genotypes, Food Hydrocolloids, 72, 323-330.
  21. Kumar, , Tony, D., Kumar, A., Kumar, K., Rao, B., & Nadendla, R. (2013). A review on Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra). International Research Journal of Pharmaceutical and Applied Sciences, 3, 120-132.
  22. Li, (1996). The use of chitosan to increase the stability of calcium alginate beads with entrapped yeast cells. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry, 23, 269-272.
  23. Mellema, (2003). Mechanism and reduction of fat uptake in deep-fat fried foods. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 14(9), 364-373.
  24. Nasirvand, L., & Javadi, A. (2018). Effect of chitosan edible coatings on reduce oil uptake in fried eggplant. Journal of Food Research, 28(2), 59-68.
  25. Sabbaghi, H., Ziaiifar, A.M., Sadeghi Mahoonak, A., Kashani-Nejad, M., & Mirzaee, H. (2015). Estimation of convective heat transfer coefficient as function of the water loss rate during frying process. Iranian Food Science and Technology Research Journal, 11(4), 473-484.
  26. Sabbaghi, H., Ziaiifar, A.M., Sadeghi, A.R., Kashaninejad, M., & Mirzaei, H. (2016). Kinetic modeling of color changes in french fries during frying process. Journal of Food Technology and Nutrition, 14(1), 65-76.
  27. Sabbaghi, H., Ziaiifar, A.M., & Kashani-Nejad, M. (2017). Mechanical study for texture degradation of potato strip during frying process. Iranian Food Science and Technology Research Journal, 13(1), 92-104.
  28. Sabbaghi, H., Ziaiifar, A.M., & Kashani-Nejad, M. (2018). Fractional conversion modeling of color changes in apple during simultaneous dry-blanching and dehydration process using intermittent infrared irradiation. Iranian Food Science and Technology Research Journal, 14(2), 383-397.
  29. Sabbaghi, H., Ziaiifar, A.M., & Kashaninejad, M. (2019). Design of fuzzy system for sensory evaluation of dried apple slices using infrared radiation. Iranian Journal of Biosystems Engineering, 50(1), 77-89.
  30. Sabbaghi, H. (2021). Application of hydrocolloid compounds (xanthan and carboxymethylcellulose) in doughnut formulation for reducing oil uptake. Iranian Food Science and Technology Research Journal, 17(5), 919-940.
  31. Shakouri, , Tavakolipour, H., Ziaolhagh, S.H.R., & Mortazavi, S.M. (2021).The effect of Blanching, packaging and storage period on moisture content and oil absorption in microwave-dried potato. Journal of Food Science and Technology (Iran), 15(81), 431-442.
  32. Taghavi, N., Ziaiifar, A.M., Mirzaee, H., Sadeghi Mahoonak, A., Ghorbani, M., & Sabbaghi, H. (2018). Investigation on effect of coating on the oil uptake during deep fat frying process of traditional sweet Pishmeh. Iranian Food Science and Technology Research Journal, 14(4), 561-571.
  33. Torabi, R., Hojjati, M., Barzegar, M., & Jooyandeh, H. (2017). Effect of hydrocolloid coatings in preventing acrylamide formation and reducing oil uptake in potato chips. Iranian Journal of Nutrition Sciences & Food Technology, 12(1), 109-120.
  34. Van Koerten, N., Schutyser, M.A., Somsen, D., & Boom, R.M. (2015). Crust morphology and crispness development during deep-fat frying of potato. Food Research International, 78, 336-332.
  35. Varela, P., & Fiszman, S.M. (2013). Hydrocolloids in fried foods. A review. Food Hydrocolloids, 1-12.
  36. Xu, K, Guo, M., Roman, L., Pico, J., & Martinez, M.M. (2020). Okra seed and seedless pod: Comparative study of their phenolics and carbohydrate fractions and their impact on bread-making, Food Chemistry, 317, 126387.
  37. Yadegari, M., Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, R., & Hashemi, S.J. (2017). Investigation of effects of lepidium sativum seed, alyssum homolocarpum and methyl cellulose gums and Compound them on oil uptake and qualitative properties of fried potato during deep frying process. Journal of Food Science and Technology (Iran), 69(14), 1-9.۷-۲۴۸۳-fa.html
  38. Ziaolhagh, , & Kanani, S. (2021). Extending the shelf life of apricots by using gum tragacanth-chitosan edible coating. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 23(2), 319-331.
  39. Ziaolhagh, , Mazaheri Tehrani, M., Razavi, M., & Rashidi, H. )2017(. Roasting process optimization of walnut kernels for the preparation of walnut cream using response surface methodology. Journal of Nuts, 8(1), 31-40.
  40. Zimoch-korzycka, , Ambrozik-Haba, J., Kulig, D., & Jarmoluk, A. )2015(. Modification effect of cellulose on the physicochemical characteristic of polysaccharides edible films. International Journal of Polymer Science, 10, 265-273.