نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 علوم و صنایع غذایی

3 جهاد دانشگاهی مشهد

چکیده

اسنک‌های غذای بخش عمده‌ایی از رژیم غذایی افراد را تشکیل می‌دهد. در سال‌های اخیر تقاضا برای تبدیل ضایعات سبزیجات و میوه‌ها به‌دلیل داشتن میزان فیبرهای رژیمی به محصولات مفید افزایش یافته است. تفاله هویج دارای مقدار زیادی فیبرهای رژیمی که حاوی خواص عملکردی و تغذیه‌ایی مهمی می‌باشد. جو حاوی مقادیر زیادی فیبر رژیمی به‌ویژه فیبرهای محلول می‌باشدکه اهمیت زیادی در کاهش سطح کلسترول خون دارد. در این پژوهش با استفاده از روش سطح پاسخ و نرم‌افزار Design Expert اثر دمای محفظه (170-120 درجه سانتی‌گراد)، میزان رطوبت (20-14 درصد) و مقدارتفاله هویج (25-10 درصد) بر ویژگی‌های نسبت انبساط شعاعی، دانسیته توده‌ای، سختی، رنگ، شاخص جذب آب، شاخص حلالیت در آب و همچنین از نظر پذیرش حسی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. با افزایش تفاله هویج، نسبت انبساط، میزان روشنایی، شاخص جذب آب و پذیرش کلی کاهش یافت. در حالیکه با افزایش رطوبت، نسبت انبساط، شاخص حلالیت در آب کاهش و میزان روشنایی و شاخص جذب آب افزایش یافت. با افزایش دما میزان سختی بافت و دانسیته افزایش یافت اما روشنایی کاهش و نسبت انبساط، شاخص جذب آب، شاخص حلالیت در آب تا دمای 145 درجه سانتی‌گراد افزایش و سپس کاهش یافت. در نهایت شرایط بهینه فرایند اکسترون با استفاده از روش سطح پاسخ و نرم‌افزار Design Expert در مقدار تفاله هویج 10 درصد، و دمای محفظه 148 درجه سانتی‌گراد و میزان رطوبت 49/15 درصد تخمین زده شد. و اسنک‌های تولید شده تحت شرایط بهینه میزان فیبرهای رژیمی محلول طی فرآیند اکستروژن از 63/7 به 27/9 نسبت به نمونه اکسترود نشده افزایش یافت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

خزین، ز.، احمدزاده قویدل، ر.، وکریمی، م. 1393. بررسی بافت و خصوصیات حسی اسنک حاوی پوره توت فرنگی. اولین همایش ملی میان وعده های غذایی.
AACC. (2000). Approved methods of the American association of cereal chemists. 10th ed. St. Paul, Minnesota: American Association of Cereal Chemists.
Ainsworth, P., Ibanoglu, S., Plunkett, A., Ibanoglu, E., & Stojceska, V. (2007). Effect of brewers spent grain addition and screw speed on the selected physical and nutritional properties of an extruded snack. Journal of Food Engineering, 81, 702–709.
Altan, A., Mccarthy, K. L., & Maskan, M. (2008a). Evaluation of snack foods from barley – tomato pomace blends by extrusion processing. Journal of Food Engineering, 84, 231–242.
Altan, A., Mccarthy, K. L., & Maskan, M. (2008b). Twin-screw extrusion of barley – grape pomace blends : Extrudate characteristics and determination of optimum processing conditions. Journal of Food Engineering, 89, 24–32.
Alu’datt, M., Rababah, T., Ereifej, K., Alli, I., Alrababah, M. A., Almajwal, A., & Alhamad, M. N. (2012). Effects of barley flour and barley protein isolate on chemical, functional, nutritional and biological properties of Pita bread. Food Hydrocolloids, 26, 135–143.
Anderson, R. A., Conway, H. F., Peplinski, A. J., Peoria, & Illinois. (1970). Gelatinization of Corn Grits by Roll Cooking , Extrusion Cooking and Steaming, 4, 2–7.
AOAC. (2000). Official methods of analysis 18th ed. Washington, DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
Brennan, M. A., Derbyshire, E., Tiwari, B. K., & Brennan, C. S. (2013). Invited review Ready-to-eat snack products : the role of extrusion technology in developing consumer acceptable and nutritious snacks. International Journal of Food Science and Technology,48, 893–902.
Caltinoglu, C., Tonyalı, B., & Sensoy, I. (2013). Original article Effects of tomato pulp addition on the extrudate quality parameters and effects of extrusion on the functional parameters of the extrudates. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 49, 587–594.
Chang, C., Yang, C., Samanros, A., & Lin, J. (2015). Collet and cooking extrusion change the soluble and insoluble b -glucan contents of barley. Journal of Cereal Science, 66, 18–23.
Chau, C. F., Chen, C. H., & Lee, M. H. (2004). Comparison of the characteristics, functional properties, and in vitro hypoglycemic effects of various carrot insoluble fiber-rich fractions. LWT- Food Science and Technology, 37(2), 155-160.
Chen, J., Gao, D., Yang, L., & Gao, Y. (2013). Effect of micro fl uidization process on the functional properties of insoluble dietary fi ber. Food Research International Journal, 54(2), 1821–1827.
Colonna, P., & Mercier, C. (1983). Macromolecular Modifications of Manioc Starch Components by Extrusion-Cooking with and without Lipids *. Carbohydrate Polymers, 3, 87–108.
Dar, A. H., Sharma, H. K., & Kumar, N. (2014). Effect of extrusion temperature on the microstructure, textural and functional attributes of carrot pomace-based extrudates. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 38(1), 212–222.
Dehghan-shoar, Z., Hardacre, A. K., & Brennan, C. S. (2010). The physico-chemical characteristics of extruded snacks enriched with tomato lycopene. Food Chemistry, 123(4), 1117–1122.
Ding, Q., Ainsworth, P., Plunkett, A., Tucker, G., & Marson, H. (2006). The effect of extrusion conditions on the functional and physical properties of wheat-based expanded snacks. Journal of Food Engineering, 73, 142–148.
Ding, Q., Ainsworth, P., Tucker, G., & Marson, H. (2005). The effect of extrusion conditions on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of rice-based expanded snacks. Journal of Food Engineering, 66, 283–289.
Elleuch, M., Bedigian, D., Roiseux, O., Besbes, S., & Blecker, C. (2011). Dietary fibre and fibre-rich by-products of food processing : Characterisation , technological functionality and commercial applications : A review. Food Chemistry, 124(2), 411–421.
Fletcher, S. I., Richmond, P., & Smith, A. C. (1985). An Experimental Study of Twin-Screw Extrusion- Cooking of Maize Grits. Journal of Food Engineering, 4, 291–312.
Gomez, M. H., & Aguilera, J. M. (1984). A Physicochemical Model for Extrusion of Corn Starch. Journal of Food Science, 49.
Gualberto, D. G., Bergman, C. J., Kazemzadeh, M., & Weber, C. W. (1997). Effect of extrusion processing on the soluble and insoluble fiber , and phytic acid contents of cereal brans. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 51, 187–198.
Harper, J.M. (1981). Extrusion of Foods. Florida: CRC Press. Kadan, R.S., Bryant, R.J. & Pepperman, A.B. (2003). Functional properties of extruded rice flours. Journal of Food Science, 68, 1669–1672.
Hashimoto, J. M., & Grossmann, M. V. E. (2003). Effects of extrusion conditions on quality of cassava bran / cassava starch extrudates. International Journal of Food Science and Technology,38, 511–517.
Huang, Y., & Ma, Y. (2016). The effect of extrusion processing on the physiochemical properties of extruded orange pomace. Food Chemistry, 192, 363–369.
Ilo, S., Liu, Y., & Berghofer, E. (1999). Extrusion Cooking of Rice Flour and Amaranth Blends. Lebensm.-Wiss. U.-Technol, 32, 79–88.
Kaisangsri, N., Kowalski, R. J., Wijesekara, I., Kerdchoechuen, O., Laohakunjit, N., & Ganjyal, G. M. (2016). Carrot pomace enhances the expansion and nutritional quality of corn starch extrudates. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 68, 391–399.
Kirby, A. R., Ollett, A. L., Parker, R., & Smith, A. C. (1989). An Experimental Study of Screw Configuration Effects in the Twin-Screw Extrusion-Cooking of Maize Grits. Journal of Food Engineering, 8, 247–272.
Korkerd, S., Wanlapa, S., Puttanlek, C., & Uttapap, D. (2016). Expansion and functional properties of extruded snacks enriched with nutrition sources from food processing by-products. J Food Sci Technol, 53, 561–570.
Larrea, M. A., Chang, Y. K., & Martinez-bustos, F. (2005). Some functional properties of extruded orange pulp and its effect on the quality of cookies. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 38, 213–220.
Li, H., Long, D., Peng, J., Ming, J., & Zhao, G. (2012). A novel in - situ enhanced blasting extrusion technique — Extrudate analysis and optimization of processing conditions with okara. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 16, 80–88.
Liu, Y., Hsieh, F., Heymann, H., & HUuff, H. E. (2000). Effect of Process Conditions on the Physical and Sensory Properties of Extruded Oat – Corn Puff. Journal of Food Science, 65, 7.
Lue, S., Hsieh, F., & Huff, H. E. (1994). Modeling of Twin-Screw Extrusion Cooking of Corn Meal and Sugar Beet Fiber Mixtures *. Ournal of Food Engineering, 21, 263–289.
Mendonça, S., Grossmann, M. V. E., & Verhe, R. (2000). Corn Bran as a Fibre Source in Expanded Snacks. Lebensm.-Wiss. U.-Technol, 33, 2–8.
Nawirska, A., Kwasniewska, M., )2005(. Dietary fibre fractions from fruit and vegetable processing waste. Food Chemistry, 91(2), 221-225.
O’Shea, N., Arendt, E., & Gallagher, E. (2013). Enhancing an Extruded Puffed Snack by Optimising Die Head Temperature , Screw Speed and Apple Pomace Inclusion. Food Bioprocess Technol.
Õzer, E.A., I˙banoglu, S., Paul, A., & Cahide, Y. (2004). Expansion characteristics of a nutritious extruded snack food using response surface methodology. Eur. Food Res. Tech. 218(5), 474–479.
Owusu-Ansah, J., Voort, F. R., & Stanley, D. W. (1983). Physicochemical Changes in cornstarch as a Function of Extrusion Variables.
Potter, R., Stojceska, V., & Plunkett, A. (2013). The use of fruit powders in extruded snacks suitable for Children’s diets. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 51, 537-544.
Rathod, R. P., & Annapure, U. S. (2016). LWT - Food Science and Technology Effect of extrusion process on antinutritional factors and protein and starch digestibility of lentil splits. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 66, 114–123.
Rodriguez-miranda, J., Ruiz-lopez, I. I., Herman-lara, E., Martinez-sanchez, C. E., & Delgado-licon, E. (2011). Development of extruded snacks using taro (Colocasia esculenta) and nixtamalized maize ( Zea mays ) flour blends. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 44(3), 673–680.
Sebio, L., & Chang, Y. K. (2000). Effects of selected process parameters in extrusion of yam flour ( Dioscorea rotundata ) on physicochemical properties of the extrudates, 44(2), 96–101.
Selani, Mabel, M., Guidolin, S., Brazaca, C., Tadeu, C., Ratnayake, W. S., Flores, R. A., & Bianchini, A. (2014). Characterisation and potential application of pineapple pomace in an extruded product for fibre enhancement. Food Chemistry, 163, 23–30.
Serena, B.K. (2007). Chemical and physic-chemical characterisation of co-products from vegetable food and agro industries. Journal of Animal Feed Science Technology, 139, 109-124.
Shafiq Alam, M.D., & Kumar, S. (2014). Optimization of Extrusion Process Parameters for Red Lentil-carrot Pomace Incorporated Ready-to-eat Expanded Product Using Response Surface. Food Science and Technology, 2(7):106-119.
Shafiq, M., Pathania, S., & Sharma, A. (2016). Optimization of the extrusion process for development of high fi bre soybean-rice ready-to-eat snacks using carrot pomace and cauli flower trimmings. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 74, 135–144.
Sriburi, P., & Hill, S. E. (2000). Extrusion of cassava starch with either variations in ascorbic acid concentration or pH. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 35, 141–154.
Stojceska, V., Ainsworth, P., Plunkett, A., & Ibanog, E. (2008). Cauliflower by-products as a new source of dietary fibre , antioxidants and proteins in cereal based ready-to-eat expanded snacks. Journal of Food Engineering, 87, 554–563.
Stojceska, V., Ainsworth, P., Plunkett, A., & Ibanoglu, S. (2010). The advantages of using extrusion processing for increasing dietary fibre level in gluten free products. Food Chemistry, 121, 156-164.
Thymi, S., Krokida, M. K., Pappa, A., & Maroulis, Z. B. (2005). Structural properties of extruded corn starch. Journal of Food Engineering, 68, 519–526.
Vasanthan, T., Gaosong, J., Yeung, J., & Li, J. (2002). Dietary fiber profile of barley flour as affected by extrusion cooking. Food Chemistry, 77, 35–40.
Yağci, S., & Göğüş, F. (2009). Development of extruded snack from food by-products: a response surface analysis. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 32, 565–586.
Yanniotis, S., Petraki, A., & Soumpasi, E. (2007). Effect of pectin and wheat fibers on quality attributes of extruded cornstarch. Journal of Food Engineering, 80, 594–599.
Yuliani, S., Torley, P. J., Arcy, B. D. Õ., Nicholson, T., & Bhandari, B. (2006). Extrusion of mixtures of starch and D -limonene encapsulated with b -cyclodextrin : Flavour retention and physical properties, 39, 318–331.
Wenwen, Y., Xinle, T., Wei, Z., Zhenxia, H., Glen, P. F., Michael ,J.G., & Robert, G.G. (2017). Relationships between protein content, starch molecular structureand grain size in barley. Carbohydrate Polymers. 155, 271–279.