نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

چکیده

امروزه، میدان الکتریکی پالسی (PEF) به‌عنوان روشی نوین جهت سالم­سازی و افزایش مدت زمان ماندگاری آب میوه‌ها مورد استفاده قرار می­گیرد. آنزیم پکتین متیل استراز (PME) به دلیل دارا بودن مقاومت حرارتی بالا به‌عنوان شاخص کفایت فرآوری آب‌میوه‌ها با اسیدیته بالا، مانند آب گوجه‌فرنگی، شناخته می­شود. با توجه به ساختار پروتئینی این آنزیم، افزایش دمای اولیه آب میوه قبل از فرآوری PEF، به غیرفعال­سازی بیش­تر آن و در نتیجه افزایش کارایی این روش کمک می­کند. روش  نوین حرارت­دهی سریع مواد غذایی با استفاده از امواج مادون قرمز (IR) در کاهش میزان افت مواد مغذی موثر شناخته می­شود. از این­رو، در این پژوهش به تاثیر همزمان دو فرایند حرارتی (IR) و غیرحرارتی (PEF) بر برخی از ویژگی­های فیزیکوشیمیایی آب گوجه‌فرنگی پرداخته شد. برای این منظور، ابتدا آب گوجه‌فرنگی با استفاده از امواج IR تا دماهای 40، 45 و 50 درجه سانتی­گراد حرارت‌دهی شد. سپس، نمونه تحت فرایند PEF مداوم (73/22، 27/27، 82/31 و 36/36 کیلوولت بر سانتی­متر به مدت 3520 میکروثانیه) قرار گرفت. میزان تغییرات اسید اسکوربیک، آنزیم پکتین متیل­استراز (PME)، کدورت و رنگ آب گوجه‌ فرآوری شده به‌ترتیب با استفاده از روش­های یدومتری، کیم­بال، اسپکتوفوتومتری و پردازش تصویر تعیین گردید. نتایج نشان داد که پیش­حرارت­دهی آب­میوه در کنار وقوع پدیده حرارت­دهی اهمیک طی فرایند PEF، به دلیل افزایش بسیار سریع دمای آب گوجه‌فرنگی موجب کاهش بیش­تر میزان فعالیت آنزیم و افزایش کدورت محصول شد. همچنین، مشاهده شد که با ترکیب PEF و حرارت­دهی ملایم و سریع محصول می­توان موجب کاهش میزان افت محتوای اسید اسکوربیک و جلوگیری از بروز تغییرات نامطلوب رنگ نمونه شد.

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