نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد ورامین پیشوا

2 واحد ورامین پیشوا

3 واحد ورامین

چکیده

ژلاتین یکی از مهمترین بیوپلیمرها است که کاربرد گسترده­ای در صنایع غذایی، دارویی، آرایشی، عکاسی و صنعتی دارد. تقاضای زیاد برای غذای حلال، نیاز به تهیه ژلاتین در صنایع غذایی را افزایش داده است. هدف از این تحقیق استخراج ژلاتین از ماهی کیلکا و جایگزینی آن در فرمولاسیون پاستیل به جای تمام یا بخشی از ژلاتین تجاری (گاوی) با درصدهای (25، 50، 75 و 100 درصد) بود. خواص فیزیکوشمیایی، رئولوژیکی و حسی پاستیل‌های حاوی ژلاتین ماهی با نمونه تجاری (گاوی) انجام گردید. مطابق با نتایج دمای تشکیل ژل، دمای ذوب شدن ژل و زمان ذوب شدن ژل ژلاتین ماهی کمتر از ژلاتین تجاری بود اما زمان تشکیل ژل در ژلاتین ماهی بیشتر از ژلاتین تجاری بود. همچنین بازده استخراج ژلاتین از ماهی کیلکا 204/9 درصد بود. اثر درصدهای مختلف ژلاتین استخراج شده ماهی بر شاخص‎های pH، رطوبت، بریکس، فعالیت آبی، شاخص‎های رنگی (L*،  a* وb*)، خواص بافتی (چسبندگی، پیوستگی، صمغیت و قابلیت جویدن) و شاخص‎های ارزیابی حسی (مزه، عطر و بو، رنگ، بافت و پذیرش کلی) معنی­دار بود (05/0≥p ). نتایج نشان داد با افزایش جایگزینی درصدهای مختلف ژلاتین ماهی شاخص­های pH، بریکس، L*، تمامی شاخص های بافت سنجی و ارزیابی حسی کاهش و مقدار رطوبت، فعالیت آبی و شاخص­های رنگی a* وb* افزایش یافت. تیمار حاوی 50 درصد ژلاتین ماهی +50 درصد ژلاتین تجاری به دلیل نزدیک بودن به نمونه شاهد از نظر خواص فیزیکوشیمیایی، رئولوژیکی و ارزیابی حسی به عنوان تیمار برتر انتخاب شد. استفاده از درصدهای مختلف جایگزینی ژلاتین استخراج شده از ماهی کیلکا اثر نامطلوبی بر خواص فیزیکوشیمیایی و رئولوژیکی پاستیل نداشت و تنها شاخص­های ارزیابی حسی به دلیل وجود طعم و بوی ماهی کیلکا باعث کاهش امتیازات ارزیابی حسی شد. بنابراین می­توان با طعم­دار کردن پاستیل­های تولیدی ویژگی­های ضعیف ارزیابی حسی پاستیل تولیده شده از ژلاتین ماهی را پوشش داده و از آن در تولید صنعتی ژلاتین استفاده کرد.

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