نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی فارسی

نویسندگان

گروه علوم و صنایع غدایی، دانشکده کشاورزی، واحد ورامین– پیشوا، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ورامین، ایران.

چکیده

ژلاتین یکی از مهمترین بیوپلیمرها است که کاربرد گسترده‌ای در صنایع غذایی، دارویی، آرایشی، عکاسی و صنعتی دارد. تقاضای زیاد برای غذای حلال، نیاز به تهیه ژلاتین در صنایع غذایی را افزایش داده است. لذا هدف از این پژوهش استخراج ژلاتین از ماهی کلیکا و جایگزینی با غلظت‌های (25، 50، 75 و 100 درصد) در فرمولاسیون پاستیل و مقایسه خواص فیزیکوشیمیایی، رئولوژیکی و حسی پاستیل حاوی ژلاتین ماهی با پاستیل حاصل نمونه تجاری (گاوی) بود. مطابق با نتایج دمای تشکیل ژل، دمای ذوب شدن ژل و زمان ذوب شدن ژل ژلاتین ماهی کمتر از ژلاتین تجاری بود اما زمان تشکیل ژل در ژلاتین ماهی بیشتر از ژلاتین تجاری بود. همچنین بازده استخراج ژلاتین از ماهی کیلکا 204/9 درصد بود. اثر درصدهای مختلف ژلاتین استخراج شده ماهی بر شاخص‎های pH، رطوبت، بریکس، فعالیت آبی، شاخص‎های رنگی (L*،  a* وb*)، خواص بافتی (چسبندگی، پیوستگی، صمغیت و قابلیت جویدن) و شاخص‎های ارزیابی حسی (مزه، عطر و بو، رنگ، بافت و پذیرش کلی) معنی‌دار بود (05/0≥p ). نتایج نشان داد با افزایش جایگزینی درصدهای مختلف ژلاتین ماهی شاخص‌های pH، بریکس، L*، تمامی شاخص‌های بافت سنجی و ارزیابی حسی کاهش و مقدار رطوبت، فعالیت آبی و شاخص‌های رنگی a* وb* افزایش یافت. تیمار حاوی 50 درصد ژلاتین ماهی+ 50 درصد ژلاتین تجاری به دلیل نزدیک بودن به نمونه شاهد از نظر خواص فیزیکوشیمیایی، رئولوژیکی و ارزیابی حسی به‌عنوان تیمار برتر انتخاب شد. استفاده از درصدهای مختلف جایگزینی ژلاتین استخراج شده از ماهی کیلکا اثر نامطلوبی بر خواص فیزیکوشیمیایی و رئولوژیکی پاستیل نداشت و تنها شاخص‌های ارزیابی حسی به‌دلیل وجود طعم و بوی ماهی کیلکا باعث کاهش امتیازات ارزیابی حسی شد. بنابراین می‌توان با طعم‌دار کردن پاستیل‌های تولیدی ویژگی‌های ضعیف ارزیابی حسی پاستیل تولیده شده از ژلاتین ماهی را پوشش داده و از آن در تولید صنعتی ژلاتین استفاده کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

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